Chengdu

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Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Sichuan, People's Republic of China
Chengdu

成都市

Chengtu, Ch'eng-tu
Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city
Clockwise from top: Anshun Bridge, Jinli, Chengdu Panda Base, and Sichuan University.

Logo of Chengdu
Nicknames: 
Hibiscus City, Brocade City, Turtle City[1]
Location of Chengdu City jurisdiction in Sichuan
Chengdu
Location of the city center in Sichuan
Show map of Sichuan
Chengdu
Chengdu (China)
Show map of China
Coordinates (Tianfu Square): 30°39′25″N 104°03′58″E / 30.657°N 104.066°E / 30.657; 104.066Coordinates: 30°39′25″N 104°03′58″E / 30.657°N 104.066°E / 30.657; 104.066
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceSichuan
Established311 BC
Municipal seatWuhou District
Divisions
 - County-level

10 districts, 5 county-level cities, 5 counties
Government
 • TypeSub-provincial city
 • CPC Party ChiefFan Ruiping
 • MayorLuo Qiang
Area
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city14,378.18 km2 (5,551.45 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[4]
1,761 km2 (680 sq mi)
 • Metro
4,558.4 km2 (1,760.0 sq mi)
 • Downtown465.88 km2 (179.88 sq mi)
Elevation
500 m (1,600 ft)
Highest elevation
5,364 m (17,598 ft)
Lowest elevation
378 m (1,240 ft)
Population
 (2014)
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city14,427,500[2]
 • Density1,003/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[4]
11,430,000
 • Urban density6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
18.1 million[3]
 • Major Nationalities
Han
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
610000–611944
Area code(s)(0)28
ISO 3166 codeCN-SC-01
GDP (nominal) Total (2018)¥ 1.534 trillion (US$ 231.8 billion)[5]
GDP (nominal) Per Capita (2017)¥ 98,011 (US$ 14,534)[6]
License Plate Prefix川A and 川G
TreeGinkgo biloba
FlowerHibiscus mutabilis
Websitewww.chengdu.gov.cn
Chéngdū
"Chéngdū" in Chinese characters
Chinese成都
Hanyu PinyinChéngdū
Cen2-du1 ([tsʰən˨˩tu˥])
PostalChengtu
Literal meaning"Become a Capital" or "Established Capital"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinChéngdū
Bopomofoㄔㄥˊ   ㄉㄨ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhCherngdu
Wade–GilesChʻêng2-tu1
IPA[ʈʂʰə̌ŋ.tú] (listen)
other Mandarin
Sichuanese PinyinCen2-du1 ([tsʰən˨˩tu˥])
Wu
SuzhouneseZén-tou
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSìhng-dōu
IPA[sȅŋ.tóu]
JyutpingSing4dou1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJSêng-to
Former name
Xījīng
Chinese西京
Literal meaningWestern Capital
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXījīng
Bopomofoㄒㄧ   ㄋㄧㄥ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhShijing
Wade–GilesHsi1-ching1
Yale RomanizationSyījīng
Nicknames
City of the Turtle
Traditional Chinese龜城
Simplified Chinese龟城
Hanyu PinyinGuīchéng
Literal meaningTurtle City
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinGuīchéng
Bopomofoㄍㄨㄟ   ㄔㄥˊ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhGueicherng
Wade–GilesKuei1-ch‘êng2
City of the Brocade Official
Traditional Chinese錦官城
Simplified Chinese锦官城
Hanyu PinyinJǐnguānchéng
Literal meaningThe Brocade Official City
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJǐnguānchéng
Bopomofoㄐㄧㄣˇ   ㄍㄨㄢ   ㄔㄥˊ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJiinguancherng
Wade–GilesChin3-kuan1-ch‘êng2
City of Brocade
Traditional Chinese錦城
Simplified Chinese锦城
Hanyu PinyinJǐnchéng
Literal meaningBrocade City
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinJǐnchéng
Bopomofoㄐㄧㄣˇ   ㄔㄥˊ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhJiincherng
Wade–GilesChin3-ch‘êng2
City of Hibiscus
Chinese蓉城
Hanyu PinyinRóngchéng
Literal meaningHibiscus City
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinRóngchéng
Bopomofoㄖㄨㄥˊ   ㄔㄥˊ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhRongcherng
Wade–GilesJung2-ch‘êng2

Chengdu (Chinese: 成都; Sichuanese: Cengtu UK: /ˌtʃɛŋˈd/, US: /ˌtʃʌŋ-/,[7][8][9] Standard Mandarin: [ʈʂʰə̌ŋ.tú] (listen)), formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of the Chinese province of Sichuan. It is one of the three most-populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an. As of 2014[update], the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, the largest in Sichuan, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the fifth-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" altification, according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[10]

Chengdu is located in central Sichuan. The surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tiānfǔ zhi Guó) and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. The site of Dujiangyan, an ancient irrigation system, is designated as a World Heritage Site. The Jin River flows through the city.

Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name mostly unchanged throughout the imperial, regressive, and communist eras. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages.[11] During World War II, refugees from eastern China fleeing from the Japanese settled in Chengdu. After the war, Chengdu's importance as a link between Eastern and Western China expanded, with railways built to Chongqing in 1952, and Kunming and Tibet afterwards.[11] In the 1960s, Chengdu became an important centre of China's national defense industry.

Chengdu is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in Western China. Its economy is diverse, characterized by the machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology industries. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines, is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and the Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates; more than 270 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu.[12] Chengdu is the seat of the Western Theatre Command region of the People's Liberation Army.[13] Chengdu will host the Summer Universiade in 2021, an international multi-sport event. It is considered one of the most livable cities in China.[14][15]

Chengdu's culture largely reflects that of its province, Sichuan; in 2011, it was recognized by UNESCO as a city of gastronomy.[16] It is associated with the giant panda, a Chinese national symbol, which inhabits the area of Sichuan; the city is home to the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding.